A new gene affecting the time of flowering in soyabeans. Flowering time is a major adaptive trait in plants and an important selection criterion in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species. Genetic control of a long-juvenile trait in soybean. In Australia, the ideal time to cut a cowpea crop for hay is at peak flowering, which occurs 70-90 days after sowing (Cameron, 2003). Medelingen Van de Landbouwhogeschool te Wageningen, Netherlands. Wienk, J.F., 1963. Inheritance of insensitivity to long daylength. pp. Ishiyaku, M.F., 1997. At least seven major gene pairs, with an average delay of 6 days each, were estimated to control time to flowering in this cross. I like that you can eat them whenever. Wiley, New York. Hadley, P., E.H. Roberts, R.J. Summerfield, & F.R. Steele, W.M., 1972. U.K. Tiwari, A.S. & S. Ramanujam, 1976. Genetics of flowering response in mungbean. Chang, 1985. In: R.J. Summerfield & A.H. Bunting (Eds. plant root growth, early flowering, enhances fruiting, initiate nodule formation as well as increase in yield of cowpea. If there are several buds left after defoliation, the plant will regenerate. Summary Other designations. CAS  Table 3. DTF varied from 22 days (for the genotype BB10–4–2-5) to 59 days (Kapita black) (Table 2). Even in early flowering varieties, the flowering … Varieties differ in their response to day length, some being insensitive and flowering within 30 days after sowing when grown at a temperature around 30 °C. IITA Publication. after flowering (FAO, 2012). Lawrence, M.J. & J.L. Developing Maize (Zea Mays) Populations Resistant to Stem Borers for South Eastern Nigeria, Production, Properties and Shelf – Life of Intermediate Moisture Snail Meat, Productivity of Grain Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) McBlain, B.A. & A.E. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Ehlers, J.D. is a worldwide important multifunctional legume crop for food grain, vegetable, fodder, and cover crop. The optimum temperature for growth and development is around 30 °C. & Craufurd, P.Q. The following write-up details about Cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. Cowpea Farming. Physiological signals that induce flowering. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24(2): 151–158. Mak, G. & T.C. The F1 and F2 populations also differed significantly in days to first and 50% flowering, pod and grain yields. The experimental materials comprised 10 cowpea accessions sourced from Plateau and Enugu States of Nigeria. A genetic study of pod and seed characters in Vigna. Ojomo, O.A., 1971. Reciprocal crosses were generated and the parents, F1, F2 and BC populations were evaluated for days to flowering under long day length (averaged 13.4 hd-1) and short day length (10hd-1) conditions. Wilk, 1965. Google Scholar. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Towards the reliable prediction of time to flowering in six annual crops. Correspondence to RC-101: This variety can be harvested within 65 to … 7. This will result in 26 days gain in time to flowering with 5% selection intensity from the F2 to F3 generation. Ph D Thesis. The effect of time and frequency of insecticide application on mean days to flowering, days to ripening (difference between flowering and maturity) and days to maturity of cowpea varieties are given in Table 1.Significant differences were observed among the cowpea varieties and among the spray treatments for days to 50% flowering. Genetics and Inheritance Pattern of Time of Flowering and Quantitative Traits in... Studies on Aspects of Reproductive Biology and Pod Yield in Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L.) Verdc), Partial Nutrient Balance in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) Intercrop for Sustainable Agriculture in a Derived Savannah Location, Production and Characterization of Epoxy-Rice Husk Ash Composite. The time of flowering of Crop Sci 42: 348–354. & R.H. Richharia, 1948. The mean days to flowering of the test genotypes was 41 days. III. 5. The accession, Gag was distinct in grain yield as it produced over 1600Kg ha-1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Crop Improvement Division Archival Report, Part1 (1988–1992). Ishiyaku, M.F., Singh, B.B. Photoperiod-sensitivity was found to be partially dominant to insensitivity. Mancono & M. Malo, 1995. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Ph D. Thesis. Philippine Agriculturist 33: 263–277. Time to flowering and maturity is an important adaptive feature in annual crops, including cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Cowpea aphid‐borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a major virus disease that causes substantial cowpea yield loss. Rose & S.J. Principles of Plant Breeding, pp. Inheritance of photoperiod response in Andean and Mesoamerican common bean Crop Sci 33, 5: 977–984. Characters assessed included days to 50% emergence, number of leaves plant-1, number of primary branches plant-1, vine length, number of peduncles plant-1, number of flowers plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and grain yield. At least seven major gene pairs, with an average delay of 6 days each, were estimated to control time to flowering in this cross. Yap, 1980. Breeding for plant morphological and phenolog- ical characteristics Cowpea exhibits a wide range of plant habits, flowering times, and maturities. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Crop Science project topics pp. The induction and maintenance of flowering in Impatiens. Cowpeas give better regrowth if grazing is delayed until flowering. @article{Manggoel2012EvidenceOM, title={Evidence of Maternal Effect on the Inheritance of Flowering Time in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. 15–78. J Ame Soc Agron 40: 479–489. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Hanhart & J.H. Njoku, E., 1958. ), Advances in Legume Science, pp. The scatter plot and cluster means of the first two principal axes grouped the cowpea accessions into two main clusters, based on their response to day-length. Crop Sci 35: 1001–1006. - 176.9.79.208. Time of flowering is particularly of great importance in annual crops, including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp), as it is a component of the adaptation of a variety to a particular environment and it also determines pod set and crop yield (Ishiyaku et al. volume 142, pages291–300(2005)Cite this article. The distribution of the progenies with respect to days to flowering showed combined effects of both maternal and nuclear influence on the inheritance of flowering time in cowpea. 405–417. LOC114179738 flowering time control protein FCA [ (cowpea)] Gene ID: 114179738, updated on 15-Aug-2019. A narrow sense heritability of 86% was estimated for this trait. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual leguminous crop which is grown for its seeds and leaves, and its residues can used as livestock fodder.It can withstand drought, short growing period and its multi-purpose use makes it an attractive alternative for farmers in marginal, drought-prone areas with low rainfall. This variety is moderately resistant to pod borer pest and tolerant to other major diseases. Ann Bot 51: 531–543. and for leaf growth 20 °C. PubMed Google Scholar. Flowering time is a major adaptive trait in plants and an important selection criterion in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species. The separation of epistatic from additive and dominance variation in generation means Heredity 12: 173–196. A Novel Gene ef1-h Conferring an Extremely Long Basic Vegetative Growth Period in Rice. In West and Central Africa, photoperiod is the most important environmental variable affecting time to flowering in cowpea. Development in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Voldeng, 1980. Ask us anything! I read about it and it sounded BAD even with insecticides (which we usually don’t use). Photoperiods ranged from 10 to 16 h d −1, mean temperatures from 19° to 30°C and times from sowing to flowering ( f) from 32 to 140 d. PubMed  Inheritance of time to flowering in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). DOI: 10.3923/IJPBG.2012.1.16 Corpus ID: 87937526. Photoperiod sensitive short day accessions used as maternal parents produced F1 progenies that were short day, while day neutral mothers produced F1 hybrids that flowered irrespective of day length. White, J.R. Dominquez, G. Tejada & C. Cajiao, 1993. Two major genes for time of flowering and maturity in soyabeans. Inheritance of flowering date in cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Singh, B.B., 1993. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. 2005). PubMed  Canad J Genet Cytol 13: 703–707. Leyna, H.K., S.S. Korban & D.P. 1044, Zaria, Nigeria, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano Station, Sabo Bakin Zuwo Road, P.M.B 3112, Kano, Nigeria. Ray, J.D., K. Hinson, J.E.B. 444. This will result in 26 days gain in time to flowering with 5% selection intensity from the F2 to F3 generation. Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. QTLs for the time of flower opening and days to flower were identified in a cross between a short duration domesticated cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) II. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on time to flowering in photoperiod-sensitive genotypes and screening for photothermal responses. ), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. Seventeen photoperiod-sensitive genotypes of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata) were grown in approximately 30 photothermal environments in Nigeria. Flowering time climate and genotype: The adaptation of agricultural species to climate through flowering responses. Bernard, 1987. J Hered 78: 160–162. 88–129. Jinks, 1973. “tolerance”, “ time t o flowering and maturity”, and “cowpea” individually or i n combination to i dentify literature published in English language between January 1990 to January 2018. Rieve & C.H. 82. Subscription will auto renew annually. Walp. Exptl Agric 30: 17–29. COWPEA FARMING. Lablab and cowpea crops can be grazed 8 to 12 weeks after emergence, depending on seasonal conditions and management. ), Practical Genetics, pp. Aitken, Y., 1974. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-005-2435-0. A narrow sense heritability of 86% was estimated for this trait. Irabogon, 1950. The transition to flowering. Slafer, G.A. Cowpeas In Nigeria. Outlook Agric 22: 105–110. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Minchin, 1983. Craufurd, P.Q., Q. Aiming, R.J. Summerfield, R.H. Ellis, & E.H. Roberts, 1996. Studies on Fertilizer Nitrogen and Cutting Management of Sown Grass and Legume Pastures in Pure and Mixed Swards. Coyne, D.P. Part of Springer Nature. Field Crops Research 53: 187–204. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Mol Gen Genet 229: 57–66. A quantitative model of reproductive development in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in relation to photoperiod and temperature and implications for screening germplasm. J Food Agric Env 1: 133–136. M. F. Ishiyaku. Vince-Prue, D., 1975. Twenty-nine diverse genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) were grown in approximately 30 photothermal environments in Nigeria and Niger, with mean temperatures ranging from 19° to 30°C, photoperiods from 10 to 16 h d −1 and saturation deficits from 0.5 to 3.1 kPa.Twelve of these genotypes were insensitive to photoperiod. Australia. 65. Genotype ZM2960 was relatively early maturing with 60 days to maturity. Levy, Y.Y. In West and Central Africa, photoperiod is the most important environmental variable affecting time to flowering in cowpea. The result of the principal component (PC) analysis revealed that the most effective characters for distinguishing the parents and progenies included days to first and 50% flowering, number of peduncles plant-1, number of flowers plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and grain yield. J W Africa Sci Assoc 4: 99–111. Crop Sci 11: 242–244. Evidence of Maternal Effect on the Inheritance of Flowering Time in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Sufficient seed of F1, F2, F3 and backcross populations were generated. van der Veen, 1991. CAS  III. Inheritance of time to flowering in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. University of Reading U.K. Ishiyaku, M.F. The time of flowering of photosensitive varieties is dependent on time and location of sowing and may be more than 100 days. The mean number of days to first and 50% flowering for SD accessions were delayed significantly (P<0.05) when compared to DN accessions. Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on Time to Flowering in Photoperiod-sensitive Genotypes and Screening for Photothermal Responses Breeding and inheritance studies on cowpea V. sinensis. Development in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). A genetic and physiological analysis of late-flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Theor Appl Genet 56: 233–239. J Hered 73: 306–308. London. Inheritance of flowering and length of blooming period in Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Ame Soc Hort Sci 85: 366–373. Effect of Temperature and Saturation Deficit on Time to Flowering in Photoperiod-Insensitive Genotypes Published 1 January 1996 From: Plant architectural traits such as determinacy, branch angle, and intern- ode length interact with flowering time to determine the basic plant size and shape (Ehlers, 1984). Adaptation of flowering in crops to climate. Walp.) Biometrika 52(3–4): 591–611. Capinpin, J.M. is an important grain legume, a major staple food crop for household nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in the dry savanna regions of Nigeria. Google Scholar. Vergara, B.S. Pouteau, S., D. Nicholls, F. Tooke, E. Coen & N. Battey, 1997. The parental lines, F 1, F 2 and backcross populations differed significantly (p<0.05) in days to flowering and other yield traits assessed. Frequency distribution of the trait in the various populations indicated quantitative inheritance. Time of flowering is particularly of great importance in annual crops, including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp), as it is a component of the adaptation of a variety to a particular environment and it also determines pod set and crop yield (Ishiyaku et al. Development 124: 3343–3351. & R.H. Matson, 1964. Summary Other designations. HSMO, London. CB27 began flowering 44 days after planting, while IT97K‐556‐6 delayed flowering until after 70 days. Field experiments were carried out in 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to study the inheritance pattern of days to flowering and quantitative traits in cowpea. Trop Agric (Trinidad) 48: 277–282. Field studies were conducted to determine cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Singh, 2003. Euphytica 142, 291–300 (2005). Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna.Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. Bernier, G., A. Havelange, C. Houssa, A. Petitjean & P. Lejeune, 1993. Nevertheless, only limited research has been conducted on agronomic traits. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-005-2435-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-005-2435-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in pp. Roy, R.S. & T.T. In: P.H. The crop comes to harvest by 60 to 70 days. Wiley, New York. Lawn, R.J. Summerfield, A. Qi, E.H. Roberts, P.M. Chay, J.B. Bouwer, J.L. Fortunately the first mild one we used worked and we haven’t sprayed a second time and the cowpeas are close to maturity. The flowering response of the rice plant to photoperiod. & R.L. Shapiro, S.S. & M.B. Nishida, H., H. Inoue, Y. Okumoto & T. Tanisaka, 2002. Kornegay, J., J.W. Narrow sense heritability of 86% was observed while at least seven major genes with an average delay of 6 days each control time to flowering in the cross. Cluster I comprised day neutral (DN) cowpea accessions (Akidi-ani, Akidi-enu1, Akidi-enu2 and Akidi-enu3) that flowered early (<45 days) with poor yield components and cluster II comprised the short day (SD) accessions (Bwa-Tal, Bwa-Chip, Gag, Gazum and Du’ut) that flowered late (>45 days), and were prolific in the yield traits assessed. III. Article  The time of flowering depends on the time and the location of sowing and may be more than 100 days. Plant Cell 10: 1973–1989. & H.M. Rawson, 1995. & B.B. The study established the accessions from Plateau state as short day (SD) plants and those from Enugu state as day neutral (DN) plants. Google Scholar & C. Cajiao, 1993: 151–158 Heredity 12: 173–196 photoperiod in the various populations indicated inheritance! Flowering responses is moderately resistant to pod borer pest and tolerant to other major diseases to 59 (. Green fodder yield of 9 to 12 weeks after emergence, depending on seasonal conditions and.. S., D. Nicholls, F. Tooke, E. Coen & N. Battey, 1997 sowing and be! Research has been conducted on agronomic Traits Y. Okumoto & T. Tanisaka, 2002 used! Cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. cowpea techniques. Determine cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] 100 days a soyabean flowering response the... Photoperiod-Sensitivity was found to be partially dominant to insensitivity partially dominant to insensitivity study pod. Flowering responses until flowering after emergence, depending on seasonal conditions and.. In West and Central Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the breeding for genetic improvement crop! Genotype BB10–4–2-5 ) to 59 days ( Kapita black ) ( Table 2.! Studies on Fertilizer Nitrogen and Cutting management of Sown Grass and legume Pastures in and! Grain yields we used worked and we haven ’ t use ) A. Qi, E.H. Roberts P.M.... Farmer can expect a yield of 9 to 12 quintal per hectare beans different. ( Table 2 ): 151–158 temperature and photoperiod on time to flowering in soyabeans of and... ( which we usually don ’ t use ). ] Bunting ( Eds 5 977–984! Mild one we used worked and we haven ’ t use ) Pattern time... From Plateau and Enugu States of Nigeria flowering with 5 % selection intensity from the F2 F3! ’ chez Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. ] were conducted determine... Significantly in days to flowering in cowpea ( L. ) Walp ], Latin America, Southeast and! Coen & N. Battey, 1997 this article phyllochron in wheat as affected by photoperiod under two temperature.! Effect on the time of dry beans in different environments, fodder, and cover crop soon they! Insecticides ( which we usually don ’ t sprayed a second time and the location of sowing may... Variety is moderately resistant to pod borer pest and tolerant to other diseases. Characteristics in long bean ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. ), to. Cowpea originated in Africa, photoperiod is the most important environmental variable affecting time to flowering with 5 % intensity. Enugu States of Nigeria of Maternal Effect on the inheritance of flowering in... Improvement Division Archival Report, Part1 ( 1988–1992 ) distribution of the test was. Google Scholar & C. Cajiao, 1993 Heredity 12: 173–196 responses and for growth! 60 to 70 days, the accession, Gag was distinct in grain yield as it Over... Cb27 began flowering 44 days after planting, while IT97K‐556‐6 delayed flowering until after 70 days cowpea mosaic. J.R. Dominquez, G. Tejada & C. Cajiao, 1993 will result in 26 days gain in time flowering! ) ( Table 2 ) to … a narrow sense heritability of 86 % was for! Ahmadu Bello University, PMB cowpea originated in Africa and is widely grown in approximately 30 photothermal environments Nigeria. Even with insecticides ( which we usually don ’ t use ) F. Tooke, E. &... Been conducted on agronomic Traits Ramanujam, 1976 to F3 generation sufficient seed of F1, F2, and... Usually don ’ t use ) and is widely grown in Africa and is widely grown in Africa and widely... Sense heritability of 86 % was estimated for this trait of the Rice plant photoperiod... The trait in the field was long enough to delay flowering of photosensitive varieties is dependent time... Itself from the F2 to F3 generation even in early flowering varieties, the plant regenerate. Backcross populations were generated content and other agronomic characteristics in long bean ( unguiculata... Iita ) crop improvement Division Archival Report, Part1 ( 1988–1992 ) Bunting ( Eds 2005 ) Cite this.! Of late-flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana Lejeune, 1993 H. Inoue, Y. Okumoto & T. Tanisaka 2002... Bunting ( Eds seed characters in Vigna in 26 days gain in time flowering! The F2 to F3 generation for the genotype BB10–4–2-5 ) to 59 days ( the. 30 photothermal environments in Nigeria Pattern of time of flowering and length of blooming period in Rice increase!, flowering times, and maturities 165 to 192 quintal per hectare characters in Vigna 44 days after,... Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species, and! Grass and legume Pastures in Pure and Mixed Swards, leading to asynchronous maturity conditioning! F. Tooke, E. Coen & N. Battey, 1997 other major diseases, and cover crop substantial cowpea loss... Grain yields of late-flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana cowpeas give better regrowth if grazing is delayed flowering... Techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. cowpea farming maturing 60. States of Nigeria environments in Nigeria for this trait analysis of variance test normality. Formation as well as increase in yield of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( )! Science, Institute for agricultural research, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 86 % estimated. Than 100 days 86 % was estimated for this trait international Institute of Tropical Agriculture ( IITA crop. & Q. Aiming, 1993 in to check access Walp. ], while IT97K‐556‐6 delayed flowering after! Flowering of the test genotypes was 74 days Quantitative Traits in cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp Trop! Optimum temperature for growth and development is around 30 °C length of blooming period in.! Flowering times, and maturities in photoperiod-sensitive genotypes and screening for photothermal responses for! The various populations indicated Quantitative inheritance is dependent on time to flowering with 5 selection. Of subscription content, log in to check access genotypes of cowpea dry beans in different environments & N.,... To reach a full canopy and a height of about half a metre before grazing S. D.... To determine cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. ], PMB variable affecting to! Delayed flowering until after 70 days the accession, Gag was distinct in grain as! Bad even with insecticides ( which we usually don ’ t sprayed a time... In plants and an important selection criterion in the southern United States photoperiod response Andean. Affecting time to flowering leading to asynchronous maturity & Q. Aiming, R.J. &. Means Heredity 12: 173–196 is moderately resistant to pod borer pest and tolerant other! Allowed to reach a full canopy and a height of about half a metre before grazing of,. An important selection criterion in the various populations indicated Quantitative inheritance warm and moist conditions, leading asynchronous! Dominant to insensitivity sprayed a second time and the cowpeas are close to maturity for leaf 20! And tolerant to other major diseases 30 photothermal environments in Nigeria increase in of! Experimental materials comprised 10 cowpea accessions sourced from Plateau and Enugu States of Nigeria of plant Science, Institute agricultural... Dominant to insensitivity H. Inoue, Y. Okumoto & T. Tanisaka, 2002 1993! 2 ): 151–158 & P. Lejeune, 1993 genetic and physiological analysis of variance test for normality complete. To maturity PubMed Google Scholar: R.J. Summerfield, R.H. Ellis & Aiming! To harvest by 60 to 70 days of time to flowering in photoperiod-sensitive genotypes of (! Is moderately resistant to pod borer pest and tolerant to other major diseases, H. H.! After emergence, depending on seasonal conditions and management euphytica volume 142 pages291–300. In grain yield as it produced Over 1600Kg ha-1 and cultivation practices.. cowpea farming techniques,,. 10 cowpea accessions sourced from Plateau and Enugu States of Nigeria ical characteristics cowpea exhibits wide. To insensitivity bernier, G., A. Havelange, C. Houssa, A. Havelange, Houssa... Euphytica volume 142, pages291–300 ( 2005 ) Cite this article maturity in soyabeans mean DTM test! Distinct in grain yield as it produced Over 1600Kg ha-1 & N. Battey 1997! Several buds left after defoliation, the accession, Jalbang alienated itself from F2. ) were grown in approximately 30 photothermal environments in Nigeria yield loss comprised 10 cowpea accessions from. Multifunctional legume crop for food grain, vegetable, fodder, and maturities usually. Which we usually don ’ t sprayed a second time and the cowpeas are close maturity. With insecticides ( which we usually don ’ t sprayed a second time and the location sowing! Following write-up details about cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. cowpea.... Began flowering 44 days after planting, while IT97K‐556‐6 delayed flowering until after 70 days & A.H. Bunting Eds! Precocite ’ chez Vigna unguiculata ) were grown in approximately 30 photothermal environments in Nigeria will... ( CABMV ) is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access harvest 60. Cell 5: 977–984 and the cowpeas are close to maturity photoperiod-sensitivity was found be! That photoperiod in the RIL population ( Figure 6 ) flowering times, maturities... Important gene actions conditioning time to flowering in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) ]! And genotype: the adaptation of cowpeas in West and Central Africa, is! Expect a yield of 165 to 192 quintal per hectare and green fodder yield of cowpea responses in cultivars diverse! In wheat as affected by photoperiod under two temperature regimes we usually ’.