[14], In March 2019, Kitaskino Nuwenëné Wildland Provincial Park was established on the borders of the Wood Buffalo National Park. Understand [] History [] Landscape [] Climate []. The 44,000-square-kilometre park is Canada’s largest national park and home to one of the largest free-roaming wood bison herds in the world. Despite protests from biologists, nearly 6,700 plains bison were introduced from Buffalo National Park, to avoid unwanted mass culling due to over-population, by the Government of Canada between 1925 and 1928,[11] where they hybridized with the local 1,500-2,000 wood bison, as well as introducing bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis diseases into the herd. [12] Since that time, wolves, the bison's main predator, have recovered in numbers due to a reduction in control efforts (mostly poisoning), reducing the size of the herd. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its large population of bison (largest in North America) and the largest inland delta.. Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway, based around hunting, fishing, and gathering. Archeological evidence shows that Indigenous people have inhabited the region that is now Wood Buffalo National Park for more than 8000 years, long before fur traders arrived in the early 1700s. Between 1951 and 1967, 4000 bison were killed and 2,000,000 pounds (910 t) of meat were sold from a special abattoir built at Hay Camp. Shortly after this, Métis families were forcibly removed and excluded from activities in the Park. Cultural History Archeological evidence shows that Indigenous people have inhabited the region that is now Wood Buffalo National Park for more than 8000 years, long before fur traders arrived in the early 1700s. From the fur trade, the Métis people emerged as another major group in the region. Again families with strong ties to the new park lands who were not actively harvesting in the park when the park expanded were not considered eligible. [12] Parks officials have since that time attempted to undo this damage with successive culls of diseased animals. Wood Buffalo National Park This area was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for the biological diversity of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, one of the world's largest freshwater deltas, as well as the population of wild bison. This region has been inhabited by human cultures since the end of the last ice age. [28][29], As above-mentioned, "wood bison" in the park are hybrid descendants between outnumbering, disease-infected plains bison translocated from Buffalo National Park into Wood Buffalo National Park in 1920s. Wood Buffalo National Park is a national park and the largest one in Canada.The park is located in northeastern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories.. This is the utter madness of colonial borders. This region has been inhabited by human cultures since the end of the last ice age. It is located in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories.Larger in area than Switzerland, it is the second-largest national park in the world. Families with strong ties to park lands who were not actively harvesting in the park when the park was established were not considered eligible. The case also provided a test to determine if Powley-type Rights existed elsewhere. Only First Nation members who were harvesting on the lands established as a park were allowed to continue harvesting. 42, No. Through the Aboriginal Committee for the Cooperative Management of Wood Buffalo National Park, which meets a number of times per year, and bilateral projects and relationships, Parks Canada and local Indigenous partners are working toward a better future, one that better respects and represents the importance of the local Indigenous communities to the park. [18] In spring, temperatures gradually warm up as the days become longer. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park in Canada, established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming Wood Bison. Wood Buffalo National Park – a UNESCO World Heritage Site – is to receive nearly $60-million over the next three years to deal with threats from hydro and oil sands development and climate change. Wood Buffalo National Park is in the northern prairie region of Canada. These smaller culls did not eradicate the diseases, however, and in 1990 a plan was announced to cull the entire herd and restock it with undiseased animals from Elk Island National Park. The park was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming wood bison, currently estimated at more … It is also known for its karst sinkholes in the north-eastern section of the park. It was identified through the International Biological Program. It protects the largest intact boreal forest on earth, contains the largest freshwater inland delta on earth, and is home to a herd of rare wood bison (or "wood buffalo"). Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wood_Buffalo_National_Park&oldid=998364612, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 01:38. [18] The mean high in July is 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) while the mean low is 9.5 °C (49.1 °F). It is located in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories.Larger in area than Switzerland, it is the second-largest national park in the world. Wood Buffalo National Park (established in 1922, 44 802 km2) was established to protect the last herd of wood bison. As a result, Wood Buffalo National Park became the first national park in Canada to allow Indigenous traditional harvesting. This led to the signing of Treaty 8 on 21 June 1899. [18] Temperatures range between 10 to 30 °C (50.0 to 86.0 °F) during this season. WBNP was established in 1922 and was placed on the World Larger in area than Switzerland,[2] it is the second-largest national park in the world. The history of the establishment and operation of the park has been negative for the Indigenous communities and confusion remains regarding Harvesting Rights. An at-risk national park: Wood Buffalo National Park was designated a World Heritage Site in 1983. 1922 to protect the only remaining herd of wood bison. This effectively struck down the privilege based system that had been in use since 1922. Alberta's largest springs (by volume, with an estimated discharge rate of eight cubic meters per second), Neon Lake Springs, are located in the Jackfish River drainage. The park ranges in elevation from 183 m (600 ft) at the Little Buffalo River to 945 m (3,100 ft) in the Caribou Mountains. The land then passed into the hand of the federal government as Crown land. Wood Buffalo National Park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983 because: It hosts one of the largest free-roaming and self-regulating bison herds in the world. Cougars, feral horses, and muskoxes have been recorded within and vicinity of the park.[19][20][21][22][23]. The communities around the park today are mostly made up of Cree, Chipewyan, Metis and non-indigenous people. American white pelicans at Rapids of the Drowned (Slave River), Jack Van Camp, 1989, A Surviving Herd of Endangered Wood Bison at Hook Lake, N.W.T. [8] Wood Buffalo is located directly north of the Athabasca Oil Sands. At 44,802 sq.km., this is the largest NP in North America and bigger than Switzerland. Wood Buffalo National Park is Canada’s largest national park. Traditional, subsistence harvesting continues to be an important part of the ecological and cultural identity of Wood Buffalo National Park. Buffalo National Park was created near the town of Wainwright in east central Alberta on June 5, 1909. After park establishment traditional harvesting was considered a “privilege”, not an Aboriginal or Treaty Right, and permits were limited in number. Research done in this area found that the local Indigenous Métis would likely have Powley-type hunting rights. A thorough understanding of traditional and scientific information is critical to protecting the ecological and cultural integrity of Wood Buffalo National Park. Explorer Peter Pond is believed to have passed through the region in 1785, likely the first European to do so, followed by Alexander Mackenzie three years later. This complicated history has been a negative one for all involved but was especially unfair to Indigenous people. [18] Fall tends to have cool, windy and dry days in which the first snowfall usually occurs in October. It is also the natural nesting place of the whooping crane. The park was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming hybridized wood bison, currently estimated … It is the only known nesting site of the endangered whooping cranes. Before the trial commenced in 1992, Parks Canada acquiesced and recognized that the lease was invalid and unauthorized by the provisions of the act. The protection of this park was first proposed by the Mikisew Cree First Nation, and it will protect the natural ecosystems from the expanding industrial areas north of Fort McMurray. Everyone harvesting in the park at the time of expansion, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, were eligible for a permit. It was named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 because of it's biological diversity of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, which is one of the world's largest freshwater deltas, as well as the population of wild bison. HSMBC Plaque Ceremony for Francois Beaulieu II (Died 1872)  - Photo of the descendants of this founding father of the NWT Metis. It was closed in 1940 and delisted in 1947 when the land was transferred to the Department of National Defence. Between 1925 and 1928, plains mostos were introduced in an effort to increase the number of animals in Wood Buffalo National Park. The park contains one of the world's largest fresh water deltas, the Peace-Athabasca Delta, formed by the Peace, Athabasca and Birch Rivers. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983. Ranking as the world’s largest dark sky preserve, Wood Buffalo National Park is situated far north in Alberta, near the southern border of the Northwest Territories. This is the origin of the name of the Peace River which flows through the region: the river became the boundary with the Dane-zaa to the North and the Cree to the South. Wood Buffalo National Park — a UNESCO World Heritage Site — is to receive nearly $60 million over the next three years to consider threats from hydro and oilsands development and climate change. In 1788 fur trading posts were established at Fort Chipewyan just east of the current boundaries of the park and Fort Vermilion just to the west. The park was created after three oil companies – Teck Resources, Cenovus Energy, and Imperial Oil – voluntarily gave up certain oilsands and mining leases in the area, following negotiations with the Alberta government and indigenous groups. The park headquarters is located in Fort Smith, with a smaller satellite office in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. Once you arrive, prepare to journey from running rapids to quiet pools while surrounded by massive bluffs as you cruise through the Ozark Mountains down to the White River. It’s the last remaining natural nesting area for the endangered whooping crane; It has unique salt plains created by an ancient seabed. The Park continues to explore opportunities to work cooperatively with its Indigenous partners . Known as Whooping Crane Summer Range, it is classified as a Ramsar site. Situated at the junction of three major rivers used as canoe routes for trade — the Athabasca, Peace and the Slave Rivers — the region that later became the national park was well travelled for millennia. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park of Canada at 44,807 km2 (17,300 sq mi). [citation needed]. [13] This plan was abandoned due to a negative public reaction to the announcement. The 583 km (225 sq mi) park land now comprises the majority of Canadian Forces Base Wainwright. The Dane-zaa, Chipewyan, and South Slavey speak (or spoke) languages from the Northern Athabaskan family, which is also common in the regions to the north and west of the park, and call themselves the "Dene" collectively. 2) In 2005 the Mikisew Cree First Nation v. Canada decision was released. [3] The park was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming hybridized[4] wood bison, currently estimated at more than 5,000. Specific harvesting regulations were developed that set up a management framework for Indigenous harvesting but were not based on Rights and set seasons and limits on the number of harvesters eligible. Wood Buffalo National Park is a vast, protected wilderness in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories. This history is reviewed in the first half of the paper, to demonstrate how … As you may have guessed from its name, the Park was created to protect dwindling wood bison herds. This short video showcases Canada's largest UNESCO world heritage site and national park as well as its oldest northern national park. The only places free of bison were along the coasts and deserts. In recorded times, the Dane-zaa (historically called the "Beaver tribe"), the Chipewyan people, the South Slavey (Dene Thaʼ), and Woods Cree people are known to have inhabited, and sometimes quarrelled over, the region. In 1957, however, a disease-free, relatively pure wood bison herd of 200 was discovered near Nyarling river. Canada purchased the Hudson's Bay Company's claim to the region in 1870. Year-round access is available to Fort Smith by road on the Mackenzie Highway, which connects to Highway 5 near Hay River, Northwest Territories. As part of Canada's system of national parks and national historic sites, Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada is our country's largest national park and one of the largest in the world. The herd at the Sweetgrass Station nearby Peace–Athabasca Delta, followed by Slave River Lowlands herd, preserves relatively loyal phenotype to the original wood bison before 1920s, even surpassing the preserved herds at Elk Island National Park and Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary.[31]. Métis members who had been harvesting on lands that became the new park were not permitted to continue to harvest in the park. Your best chance of seeing wild bison are to visit Yellowstone National Park or Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada. Their population is currently estimated at more than 5,000. As part of that decision the court recognized that there was an existing right under Treaty 8 to hunt, fish and trap for personal use within the park. We visited Wood Buffalo National Park in mid-August. [16] Canada in response announced to fund $27.5 million to solve the problems, but UNESCO questioned and did not lift the potential delisting of the park, and the report by Canada will be reviewed by the World Heritage Committee in 2021. It is also the most ecologically complete and largest example of the Great Plains-Boreal grassland ecosystem of North America. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park in Canada. The park has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its bison population (the largest in North America) and the largest inland delta. 1) In 2003 the R. v. Powley decision recognized the Métis right to hunt in the Sault Ste Marie area. In 2007, the world's largest beaver dam – about 850-metre (2,790 ft) in length – was discovered in the park using satellite imagery;[24][25][26] The dam, located at 58°16.3′N 112°15.1′W / 58.2717°N 112.2517°W / 58.2717; -112.2517,[27] about 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Fort Chipewyan, had only been sighted by satellite and fixed-wing aircraft until July 2014. With longstanding concerns about the deterioration of the park, the Mikisew Cree First Nation formally petitioned the UN body in 2014 to have the site listed as … This provincial park will be closed to forestry and new energy projects, but existing wells in the area can keep producing and traditional indigenous land uses are allowed. The climate is very mixed and can go from -50 in the winter to +30 … [30] However, a study in 1995 detected that there have been notable differences in morphology among each herds within the park, showing different degrees of hybridization. Agriculture was never developed in this part of Western Canada, unlike to the south; thus hunting and trapping remained the dominant industry in this region well into the twentieth century, and are still vital to many of its inhabitants. [18] On average, summers are characterized by warm and dry days although in some years, it can have cool and wet days. Over the years this “privilege” was passed down to the children of the original harvesters and a registry was established at the park to track hereditary eligibility, numbers of harvesters and number of permits issued. The Cree, by contrast, are an Algonquian people and are thought to have migrated here from the east within the timeframe of recorded history. Established in 1922, the park was created on Crown land acquired the territory of Treaty 8 between Canada and the local First Nations. This is captured and supported in the 2010 Wood Buffalo National Park Management Plan under Key Strategy 1, Towards a Shared Vision which is located at: http://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/nt/woodbuffalo/info/plan/plan1. A more inclusive approach to harvesting was adopted. It has an area of 17,300 sq mi (44,807 sq km) and was established in 1922 as a refuge to protect the few remaining bison herds in northern Canada. Sometime after 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the region, the two groups made a peace treaty at Peace Point through a ceremonial pipe ceremony. [18] Winters are cold with temperatures that can drop below −40 °C (−40.0 °F) in January and February, the coldest months. Articles, timelines & resources for teachers, students & public. Covering more territory than Switzerland, it sprawls across northeastern Alberta and juts into the southern part of the Northwest Territories. However, while innovative at the time, this approach was not implemented in a way that treated harvesting by all Indigenous people in a fair fashion. When Wood Buffalo was created in 1922 (north of the Peace River) the land was considered to be ‘taken up’ and all Aboriginal rights were considered extinguished. Wood Buffalo National Park. It is huge with only one road in order to conserve wildlife and environment. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest National Park of Canada at 44,807 km 2 (17,300 sq mi). History, politics, arts, science & more: the Canadian Encyclopedia is your reference on Canada. Bison hunting was prohibited, and Wood Buffalo Park was established, now Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP). American bison like open plains, savannas, and grasslands. [17], In the park, summers are very short, but days are long. [5][6][7] It is one of two known nesting sites of whooping cranes. The communities around the park today are mostly made up of Cree, Chipewyan, Metis and non-indigenous people. However, given the large area to be taken up as a National Park, eliminating all harvesting was not considered reasonable. Wood Buffalo is Canada’s largest national park. 24, Alberta: The world's largest dark sky preserve is a Canadian park established to preserve the country's last wood … Traditional cultural use by Indigenous harvesters preserves and transmits Indigenous culture to future generations and contributes to the sharing and growth of Indigenous ecological knowledge of the land and waters in and around the park. ?, Arctic, Vol. Commercial flights are available to Fort Smith and Fort Chipewyan from Edmonton. Wood Buffalo National Park, 17,577 sq mi (45,525 sq km), in NE Alta., Canada, extending into the Northwest Territories; est. Over the years the privileged based system continued to be an issue of concern for local Indigenous people. Wood Buffalo National Park, park in northern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories, Canada, between Athabasca and Great Slave lakes. Over 200 years ago, Peter Pond and the Voyagers of the Northwest Trading Company traveled through this area in search of furs and discovered land of wild water, lush forests and abundant wildlife. 314-322, C. G Van Zyll de Jong , 1986, A systematic study of recent bison, with particular consideration of the wood bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads 1898), National Museum of Natural Sciences, "Protected Planet | Wood Buffalo National Park Of Canada", "Heaven Below Me – Exploring Wood Buffalo National Park from the Air", https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/news/canada/more-staff-artificial-flooding-among-plans-to-save-wood-buffalo-national-park-280877/, "Ottawa produces action plan for Wood Buffalo National Park", https://cklbradio.com/feds-have-new-plan-to-preserve-wood-buffalo-national-park/, "Wood Buffalo National Park: Statement of Significance", "RASC Designates Wood Buffalo National Park as a New Dark Sky Preserve", "Northern bison sanctuary or big ranch? Wood Buffalo National Park was created in 1922. Wood Buffalo National Park Situated on the plains in the north-central region of Canada, the park (which covers 44,807 km2) is home to North America's largest population of wild bison. 15BUR VI.31-34 - Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1990 14COM IX - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1989 13COM VIII.16 - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1989 13BUR IVB.12 - State of conservation of other natural properties: 1985 09COM XIIIC - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1983 Report of the 7th Session of the Committee The result of these Supreme Court of Canada decisions is that Parks Canada now recognizes the Treaty 8 Right to harvest in the park and the Asserted Rights of the Métis. Canada's largest national park straddles the Alberta/NWT border. Wood Buffalo Park contains the only natural nesting habitat for the endangered whooping crane. Established in 1972, Buffalo National River flows freely for 135 miles and is one of the few remaining undammed rivers in the lower 48 states. Fort Smith is the nearest town. Permits were however still based on being in the park at the time of expansion. They were drawn by the fur trade, not realizing the future that lay within the sticky black sand and pools of bitumen documented in Pond’s Journals. Since 2003 local Indigenous Metis have exercised their Asserted Right to hunt in the park and have been involved in various park management objectives, including cooperative management. Wood Buffalo National Park Experience the wonders of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Canada’s largest national park and now the World's Largest Dark Sky Preserve. And the Peace River, which had long been used by the First Nations as a trade route, also now also added to the growing network of canoe routes used in the North American fur trade. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park of Canada at 44,807 km 2 (17,300 sq mi). regime. 4 (Dec., 1989), pp. In both the original establishment and the expansion of the park the decisions to exclude certain Indigenous members of a community, for the reasons stated earlier, resulted in divisions between members where they did not exist before. Outside the park boundary though, anyone who wanted to shoot ejëre east of Highway 35 in Alberta, could. It was established in 1922 to protect the last remaining herds of bison in northern Canada. It is located in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories. Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway, based around hunting, fishing, and gathering. Wood Buffalo National Park", "Alberta to allow hunters to kill Hay-Zama bison", "Three oilsands companies surrender land for new Alberta park to be co-managed with First Nations", UN says Canada’s plan to rescue Wood Buffalo National Park needs ‘considerably more effort’, Bob Weber, The Canadian Press, June 13, 2019, Wood Buffalo ‘doomed without quick action’ as UN extends deadline, Cabin Radio, Published: July 3, 2019 Sarah Pruys, "Gotta see it to believe it: Man hunts muskox in northern Alberta", "Wild horses spotted near Wood Buffalo National Park", "World's biggest beaver dam discovered in northern Canada", "Exploring Beaver Habitat and Distribution with Google Earth: The Longest Beaver Dam in the World", "U.S. Explorer Reaches World's Largest Beaver Dam: Adventurer Bushwacks Through Dense Northeast Alberta Boreal Forest", "Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada - How to Get There", "Aerial photos of Wood Buffalo National Park", Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Scandia Eastern Irrigation District Museum, Protected areas of the Northwest Territories, Kluane / Wrangell–St. It was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free-roaming wood bison, currently estimated at more than 5,000. 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